Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/index.php on line 31

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 130

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/includes/application.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/includes/application.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/includes/application.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 0

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/index.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/carden4/public_html/contentmanager/libraries/loader.php on line 186

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Revisar el TLCAN, sí, pero no basta

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Revisar el TLCAN, sí, pero no basta PDF Imprimir Correo electrónico
Martes 15 de Enero de 2008 00:00

 

Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas

 

Desde el 1º de enero de 1994 en que el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) entró en vigor, se sabía que el 1º de enero de 2008 nuestras fronteras se abrirían sin traba alguna a los productos de la agricultura de Estados Unidos y Canadá, en particular a los granos. Desde aquel entonces, las organizaciones campesinas de mayor presencia en el país y múltiples voces de los sectores patrióticos y progresistas advirtieron los daños que ocasionaría a la economía campesina esa apertura indiscriminada y las condiciones ventajosas en que se encontraban los productores extranjeros en su competencia con los nacionales, y desde entonces también reclamaron la revisión del capítulo agropecuario del TLCAN.

 

Los daños no empiezan en este año a partir de la apertura formal de nuestra frontera a los granos de los productores extranjeros. Desde que el tratado cobró vigencia se han visto seriamente afectados los productores de cereales, frijol, oleaginosas, azúcar, lácteos y otros productos ganaderos y forestales. Y debe agregarse que el TLCAN es el primero y único acuerdo de libre comercio suscrito por nuestro país que liberalizó el comercio de productos del campo, lo que no hizo México en ninguno de los más de 10 acuerdos de libre comercio firmados con posterioridad al de América del Norte.

 

 

Con anterioridad, cuando en 1991 se planteaba y discutía la contrarreforma del artículo 27 constitucional, que abrió la puerta a la privatización de las tierras ejidales y comunales, que el gobierno proclamaba sería el camino para incrementar la inversión productiva en el campo, arraigar en él al campesino y elevar los niveles de vida de la población rural, desde el sector progresista se sostenía que no debía reformarse el 27, que lo que estaba haciendo falta en el campo era inversión productiva, obras de infraestructura –de riego, caminos, etcétera–, crédito accesible, barato, oportuno y manejado con honradez, organizar a los productores, integrar con ellos las cadenas productivas, desde la producción de la tierra hasta la agroindustria y la comercialización dentro y fuera del país, a lo que el gobierno de entonces y los que lo siguieron sólo pusieron y han puesto oídos sordos.

 

Desde la reacción y el entreguismo se aduce que no es posible revisar el TLCAN. Otros sostenemos que es posible y es necesario.

 

El propio tratado en su artículo 2202 –Enmiendas– establece que “1. Las Partes podrán convenir cualquier modificación o adición a este tratado”. Y que “2. Las modificaciones y adiciones acordadas y que se aprueben según los procedimientos jurídicos correspondientes de cada parte, constituirán parte integral de este tratado”.

 

Por otro lado y yendo de menos a más, el capítulo IV, artículo 29 de la Ley de Comercio Exterior permite revisar el TLCAN en aquellas áreas o respecto a aquellos productos en los que exista daño o riesgo de daño para la producción nacional, lo que puede claramente demostrarse al considerar los impactos de la apertura comercial a partir del 1º de enero de 1994: la caída del producto agropecuario y forestal, los miles de quiebras de negocios, la disminución del ingreso de la población en términos reales, los campos abandonados y la creciente migración hacia el norte; y el artículo 131 de la Constitución, sobre la que no puede imponerse ni prevalecer ordenamiento alguno, prevé que el Ejecutivo podrá ser facultado por el Congreso de la Unión “para restringir y para prohibir las importaciones, las exportaciones y el tránsito de productos, artículos y efectos, cuando lo estime urgente, a fin de regular el comercio exterior, la economía del país, la estabilidad de la producción nacional, o de realizar cualquiera otro propósito, en beneficio del país”.

 

Esto es, el Estado mexicano cuenta con las bases legales tanto para renegociar las partes del TLCAN que resulten nocivas para nuestro país, su economía y las condiciones de vida de la población, como para instrumentar una política que reactive la economía rural, arraigue a la población del campo en las zonas de producción y trabajo y abra las oportunidades que permitan elevar las condiciones de vida de esa población.

 

Respecto en particular al TLCAN, debe tenerse presente que en lo positivo –aumento de los intercambios con el exterior, apertura y expansión de mercados para legumbres, cerveza, tequila, aguacate, mango, limón, guayaba, zarzamora– ya dio lo que podía dar, que está agotado, por lo que el gobierno mexicano al mismo tiempo que su revisión, debiera plantear a los gobiernos de Canadá y Estados Unidos la firma de una adenda de cooperación trilateral, que comprometiera a las tres partes en un esfuerzo de cooperación para el desarrollo y no sólo de comercio, que involucrara áreas de la actividad social –empleo y capacitación entre ellas–, de producción, infraestructura, y que tuviera como objetivos principales y prioritarios la eliminación de las diferencias sociales y las asimetrías económicas, así como la creación de mecanismos como fondos especiales para el desarrollo, que permitieran hacer realidad esos propósitos.

 

Pero hoy no es suficiente revisar el TLCAN. El país y sobre todo los campesinos reclaman una política para el campo distinta a la de los últimos sexenios, una política concebida con patriotismo y responsabilidad social, que aumente producciones y productividades e incida favorablemente en la elevación de las condiciones de vida.

 

En el caso particular del maíz debe distinguirse el blanco, para consumo humano, del que nuestro país tiene excedentes, y el amarillo, utilizado preferentemente en el sector pecuario, del que México es deficitario e importa desde hace años fuertes volúmenes. Se trata de dos productos distintos que exigen un trato diferenciado.

 

En un esquema de protección, que se hace necesario, debieran privilegiarse la producción y la distribución de maíz blanco, buscando eliminar su utilización en el sector pecuario, pues debe destinarse fundamentalmente al consumo humano. Para el blanco debe establecerse un programa ingreso-objetivo, manteniendo sólo como referencia el precio que establece el mercado de valores al amarillo. Con base en ese programa se podrían impulsar las compras anticipadas, la producción por contrato y las coberturas de precios entre productores e industriales de la masa y la tortilla, así como obtener acuerdos similares con la industria harinera. Convendría, incluso, formar un fondo de estabilización como el de los caficultores, que ha dado buen resultado. Al respecto y por su parte, el gobierno federal, a través de Diconsa y las organizaciones de productores, podría instrumentar mecanismos de compra y distribución de grano aprovechando la red de 22 mil tiendas comunitarias, promoviendo así los circuitos de producción-consumo, con lo que se lograría que las fluctuaciones de precios no repercutieran en el consumidor final.

 

Como parte de una política de estímulo a la producción de maíz para alimentación de la población, es preciso desarrollar programas para fomentar el uso de maíces híbridos nacionales con alto contenido proteico y de criollos destacados, acompañados del uso extensivo de biofertilizantes, reduciéndose así los costos de semilla y de fertilización en los cultivos.

 

Debe pensarse igualmente en establecer un sistema nacional de abasto, que considere la creación de una reserva estratégica de maíz blanco, frijol y azúcar por lo menos, que se apoye en centros regionales y pueda garantizar una canasta básica alimentaria de calidad y fácil acceso. No sería difícil desarrollar este sistema si se recurre consistentemente a las compras anticipadas y a las coberturas de precios, que garanticen precios piso a los productores y precios techo a los compradores.

 

Por otro lado, además de echar mano el gobierno de los instrumentos constitucionales y legales de los que dispone para revisar el TLCAN y proteger de daños a la economía nacional, además de lo que específicamente se haga para que la producción de maíz blanco sea efectivamente aprovechada para la alimentación de la población y no se destine ni a utilizaciones en la ganadería ni en la industria de los combustibles, se requiere al mismo tiempo y urgentemente poner en práctica una política de verdadero apoyo a los productores nacionales y a la economía rural.

 

Es necesario incrementar sustancialmente las inversiones públicas en infraestructuras, disponer de créditos baratos, suficientes y oportunos para los productores mexicanos, revisar los esquemas de subsidios y tomar las medidas fiscales, de precios, técnicas, administrativas, que eleven la competitividad de los productores nacionales frente a los del exterior, restablecer los servicios públicos de asistencia técnica, organizar regionalmente y por ramas a los productores e integrar con ellos las cadenas productivas, de almacenamiento y comercialización.

 

En fin, se requiere una nueva política para los campesinos y el campo. Es preciso y apremiante revisar el TLCAN, pero, evidentemente, no basta.